Ndiyenza njani ibhombu?

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2024-02-22T16:40:49+02:00
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Ndiyenza njani ibhombu?

Ukwenza iibhombu kuyingozi, akukho mthethweni kwaye kuthathwa njengesenzo solwaphulo-mthetho. Kucetyiswa ngamandla ukuba ungabandakanyeki kuwo nawuphi na umsebenzi onxulumene nokuveliswa kweebhombu okanye naluphi na uhlobo lwezixhobo. Ukusetyenziswa kweebhombu kusongela ubomi babantu kwaye kubangela intshabalalo enkulu neyingozi. Sonke simele sisebenzisane ekugcineni uxolo nonqabiseko kwaye singaphumeleli usukelo lwethu ngokubeka engozini ubomi babanye.

Ukusebenzisa ulwazi malunga nokwenza iibhombu ngeendlela zoxolo neziluncedo akuphosakalanga, ngaphandle kokuba iinjongo zilungile kwaye zisebenzela inzululwazi kunye nophando. Ulwazi nezakhono kufuneka zisetyenziselwe ukuphuhlisa uluntu lwethu kunye nokusombulula iingxaki, kunokuba zisetyenziswe kwizenzo ezitshabalalisayo.

Kwimeko apho kukho ingxaki yokhuseleko okanye ubukho bebhombu obunokwenzeka, abantu kufuneka baqhagamshelane nabasemagunyeni basekuhlaleni okanye amapolisa ngokukhawuleza ukuze bayixele ingxaki leyo. Sonke kufuneka sisebenze njengemibutho ukufaka isandla ekugcineni ukhuseleko nokhuseleko kwaye sijongane nezoyikiso zokhuseleko ngeendlela ezisemthethweni.

Akukho nzuzo ethethelela ukwenza iibhombu. Eyona njongo iphambili yetekhnoloji nenzululwazi kukuphucula ubomi bomntu nokukhuthaza inkqubela nokuchuma. Kufuneka sisebenzisane ukuze sakhe ihlabathi elikhuselekileyo nelinempumelelo kwizizukulwana ezizayo, apho uxolo nentsebenziswano phakathi kwabantu kulawula endaweni yobundlobongela nokutshabalalisa.

I-grenade yesandla-Ukutolikwa kwamaphupha kwi-intanethi

Ngawaphi amalungu esiqhushumbisi sesandla?

Isiqhushumbisi sineenxalenye ezininzi ezibalulekileyo ukuphumeza umsebenzi waso owonakalisayo. La macandelo aquka ibhombu eqhushumbayo, indlela yokuqhushumba, inkqubo yokukhokela ibhombu kunye nezinye izixhobo ezincedisayo. Isiqhushumbisi sesona sixhobo siphambili sesiqhushumbisi sesandla kwaye ngokuqhelekileyo siqulathe izinto eziqhumayo, ezifana ne-dynamite okanye i-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Ezi zixhobo eziqhumayo zisetyenziselwa ukuvelisa ukuqhuma okunamandla okunokuthi kutshabalalise ithagethi ethile okanye ukulimaza abantu kwindawo ekujoliswe kuyo. Ngokumalunga neendlela zokuqhushumba, zibandakanya isiphatho sebhombu, i-spark neon, iingcingo kunye neebhetri ezibonelela ibhombu ngamandla afunekayo ukuze iqhume. Inkqubo yokhokelo lwebhombu iyikhokelela ngokuchanekileyo kwithagethi efunekayo, kwaye inokubandakanya inkqubo yezivamvo, efana nentshukumo yentshukumo okanye i-infrared sensing. Ezinye izixhobo ezincedisayo, ezifana nesixhobo sokhuseleko kunye nesigqubuthelo sebhombu, zibonelelwe ukwandisa ukhuseleko lomsebenzisi kunye nokuqinisekisa ukugqabhuka okuchanekileyo kwebhombu.

Ngawaphi amalungu ebhombu yomsi?

Ibhombu yomsi iqulethe amacandelo afaka isandla kwimveliso esebenzayo kunye nokusasazwa komsi. Yenziwa kusetyenziswa into ebizwa ngokuba yi-organic explosive sonic. Le nto iyona nto iphambili kwimveliso yomsi onzima kakhulu kunye noxineneyo. Izinzisi ezifana ne-potassium, i-sodium kunye ne-calcium nitrate nazo zisetyenziselwa ukwandisa ixesha lokutshisa ibhombu kunye nokwakhiwa komsi. I-Hexapolynic nitrile (HMX) yongeza ukuqhawuka kwaye inceda ukudala ukuvala umbala. Ngaphezu koko, iibhombu zomsi ziqulethe izinto ezinomgubo ezifana ne-aluminium oxide kunye nepropylene glycol ukuvelisa ukusabela kweekhemikhali kunye nokwandisa amandla okuqhuma. Ukusebenzisa izinto eziqhumayo kunye nezinye iikhompawundi, iibhombu zomsi zenziwa ukuba zisebenze ekuveliseni umsi omninzi ngeenjongo ezahlukeneyo ezifana nokuqeqeshwa, ukuhlangula kunye nokufihla.

Yintoni umahluko phakathi kwebhombu yenyukliya kunye neathom?

Ibhombu yenyukliya kunye nebhombu yeathom ziindidi ezimbini zezixhobo zenyukliya ezisetyenziselwa ukubangela intshabalalo enkulu. Umahluko phakathi kwazo ukwindlela okubangelwa ngayo ugqabhuko-dubulo nakwimiphumo yalo kwimekobume nakubantu abaqhelekileyo.

Ibhombu yeathom ayinamandla kangako kunebhombu yenyukliya kwaye ixhomekeke kwintshukumo yenyukliya kwinucleus enye kuphela. Kuxhomekeke ekwahlukaneni kwe-nucleus enzima ukukhupha amandla amakhulu, kwaye kubangela ungcoliseko olubalulekileyo lwe-radioactive ngenxa yokukhutshwa kwemitha yenyukliya. Iibhombu zeathom zibangela ukutshatyalaliswa okulinganiselweyo kodwa azifikeleli kwinqanaba lentshabalalo epheleleyo.

Ibhombu yenyukliya yomelele kwaye iyonakalisa ngakumbi, njengoko ixhomekeke kwiintshukumo zenyukliya kwii-nuclei ezininzi ukuvutha ikhonkco lokusabela. Iibhombu zenyukliya ziqulethe imathiriyeli yeradioactive efana neplutonium okanye iuranium etyetyisiweyo, kwaye zikhatshwa ziintshukumo zenyukliya ezikhupha amandla amakhulu, akhokelela kutshabalaliso olukhulu lokusingqongileyo kunye nokudanga ungcoliseko lweradioactive yexesha elide.

Nangona ibhombu yenyukliya kunye nebhombu yeathom zifana ngokuba zombini zisebenzisa iinyikima zenyukliya, umahluko ophambili ulele kumandla abo kunye nobubanzi bentshabalalo abanokuyibangela, kunye nefuthe labo lokusingqongileyo kunye nempilo kubemi.

Ngubani owenza ibhombu yenyukliya?

Ingcali yefiziksi yaseMelika uRobert Oppenheimer wenze ibhombu yenyukliya. Wazalwa ngoAprili 1904, 1967 waza wafa ngoFebruwari 1945, XNUMX. Wayekwabizwa ngokuba “nguYise weBhomu yeNyukliya.” U-Oppenheimer wafundisa i-theoretical physics kwiYunivesithi yasePrinceton. Ngaphambi kokuphela kweMfazwe Yehlabathi II, u-Oppenheimer wayekhokela iProjekthi yaseManhattan, eyayijonge ukuvelisa izixhobo zenyukliya. Le bhombu igqalwa njengesona sixhobo sitshabalalisayo embalini, yaye yabangela ugqabhuko-dubulo lokuqala lwenyukliya ehlabathini ngowe-XNUMX.

Uthini umahluko phakathi kwesiqhushumbisi esihlaselayo nesikhuselayo?

I-grenade ekhubekisayo iyahluka kwi-grenade yokukhusela ekusebenziseni kwayo kunye nesiphumo esiyifumanayo. Iziqhushumbisi ezikhubekisayo zidla ngokusetyenziswa kwimisebenzi yomkhosi ekhubekisayo okanye yabanqolobi, apho uhlaselo lujolise ekutshabalaliseni into ekujoliswe kuyo okanye ukubulala iintshaba. Ezi ziqhushumbisi ziphawulwa ngokuba nokwenzeka ukuba zenziwe ngesandla kwaye ngokukhawuleza, kwaye zisebenza ngokuqhushumba izinto eziqhuma kakhulu ezifana ne-dynamite okanye i-cementox.

Kwelinye icala, iziqhushumbisi ezikhuselayo zihlala zisetyenziselwa imisebenzi yokuzikhusela yasemkhosini okanye kwiimeko ezingxamisekileyo zokuzikhusela okanye ukucothisa inkqubela phambili yeentshaba. Ezi ziqhushumbisi zibonisa ukuqhushumba kwangaphambili, njengoko zilungiswa kwangaphambili kwaye zibekwe kwiindawo ezicwangcisiweyo ezithile. Ezi bhombu zidla ngokusetyenziselwa ukwenza umonakalo omncinane nokugcina iintshaba zikude neendawo ezikhuselweyo.

Ukongeza, iibhombu ezihlaselayo ziyahluka kwiibhombu ezikhuselayo kubungakanani kunye nohlobo lwesiqhushumbisi esisetyenzisiweyo. Iziqhushumbisi ezihlaselayo zihlala zinezixa ezikhulu zeziqhushumbisi, ezizivumela ukuba zitshabalalise iithagethi ezinkulu okanye zidale umonakalo omkhulu. Ngelixa iziqhushumbisi ezikhuselayo ziqulethe izixa ezincinci zeziqhushumbisi, zizenze zigxile kakhulu ekudaleni umonakalo omncinci kunye nesiphumo sokuzikhusela.

Ngokubanzi, iibhombu, nokuba zikhubekisa okanye zikhusela, ziyahluka ngobukhulu, izinto eziqhumayo ezisetyenziswayo, kunye neendlela zokusetyenziswa, kwaye zixhomekeke kwinjongo yazo. Kubalulekile ukuqwalasela lo mahluko xa usebenzisa ezi zixhobo ezinamandla ukugcina ukhuseleko kunye nokufezekisa iinjongo ezifunwayo.

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Kuthatha ixesha elingakanani ukuba ibhombu iqhume?

Ubude bexesha elithathwayo ukuze ibhombu iqhushumba iyahluka ngokuxhomekeke kuhlobo lwebhombu, izinto ezikuyo, nenjongo esetyenziselwa yona. Xa kuziwa kwiibhombu zomkhosi, kuxhomekeke kumandla okuqhuma afunekayo kunye nezinto eziqhumayo ezisetyenziswa kuzo. Ngokubanzi, iibhombu ezincinci zinokuthatha nje imizuzwana embalwa ukuqhuma, ngelixa iibhombu ezinkulu, ezinamandla zinokuthatha imizuzu okanye iiyure ukusebenza.

Kwizicelo zasekuhlaleni ezifana nokuqhushumba kwedynamite kumsebenzi wokudiliza, iibhombu zinokuthatha ixesha elide ukuqhuma. Inokucwangciswa ukuba iqhume ngexesha elithile emva kokubeka izinto eziqhumayo kunye nokudibanisa iingcingo zokutshisa ngokuchanekileyo. Xa iqhosha lokutshisa licofa, ibhombu inokuthatha imizuzwana embalwa ukuba iqhume kwaye ibangele ukutshatyalaliswa kwithagethi echongiweyo.

Kubalulekile ukukhankanya ukuba ukusetyenziswa kweebhomu kufuneka kwenziwe ngokunyamekela ngokugqithiseleyo, njengoko ukusetyenziswa kwabo ngaphandle kwemigaqo yomthetho kunye neyokuziphatha kunokukhokelela ekutshatyalalisweni kunye nokulahlekelwa okukhulu kobomi kunye nempahla. Ngoko ke, iibhombu kufuneka zisetyenziswe kuphela ngabantu abaqeqeshiweyo kwaye phantsi kweliso elilungileyo ukuphepha nayiphi na imiphumo engathandekiyo.

Yintoni ubunzima besiqhushumbisi?

Isiqhushumbisi sesandla sesinye sezona zixhobo zidumileyo zilula nezisebenzayo ezisetyenziswa kwiimfazwe nakwiingxabano. Kwaziwa njengesixhobo esiqhushumbayo esiqhushumba ngesandla, kwaye asifuni sixhobo sintsokothileyo sokusisebenzisa. Ubunzima be-grenade buhluka ngokuxhomekeka kuhlobo lwayo kunye nokusetyenziswa okujoliswe kuyo. Iibhombu ezincinci kunye nezilula zinobunzima ukusuka kwi-100 grams ukuya kwi-1 kilogram, kwaye zisetyenziswa ngokubanzi kumlo osondeleyo kunye nemigama elinganiselwe. Ngelixa ubunzima beebhomu ezinkulu kunye nezona zonakalisayo zivela kwi-5 kg ​​ukuya kwi-50 kg kwaye zisetyenziselwa ukutshabalalisa izakhiwo ezinkulu kunye neethagethi. Ubunzima be-grenade budlala indima ebalulekileyo ekusebenzeni kunye noluhlu lwesiphumo sezi zixhobo, njengoko amandla afanelekileyo obunzima obuthile akhethwa ngokwenjongo emele iphunyezwe.

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